Занятия по английскому
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I.  Употребление времен в пассивном залоге.

Если подлежащее выражает лицо или предмет, который подвергается действию со стороны другого лица или предмета, то глагол употребляется в форме пассивного залога.

TV sets Are Sold in this shop.

The Contract Was Signed yesterday.

Времена в пассивном залоге образуются при помощи вспомогательного глагола “To Be” в соответствующем времени и Причастия II (Past Participle) , то есть глагола в 3-й форме V3.

Present Simple: Am/is/are + V3. e. g. The books Are published here.

Past Simple: Was/were + V3. e. g. The goods Were delivered by air.

Future Simple: Will be + V3. e. g. The computers Will be bought tomorrow.

Present Continuous: Am/is/are + Being + V3. E. g. The problem Is being Discussed.

Past Continuous: Was/were + being + V3. e. g. The text Was being Translated for 3 hours.

Present Perfect: Have/has + Been + V3. e. g. The new model of TV Has just Been Delivered.

Past Perfect: Had + been + V3. e. g. The letter Had been Written before I came.

В вопросительной форме вспомогательный глагол употребляется перед подлежащим:

Are the books Published here?

Were the goods Delivered by air?

Will the computers Be Bought?

Is the problem Being Discussed?

Has the new model Been Delivered?

Времена пассивного залога употребляются согласно тем же правилам, что и соответствующие им формы времен активного залога:

Present Simple

Active

Passive

They Produce Excellent goods.

Excellent goods Are Produced.

This company Issue shares.

Shares Are Issued by this company.

 

Past Simple

Active

Passive

We Lost profit 2 years ago.

Profit Was lost 2 years ago.

The director Signed the papers.

The papers Were Signed.

Future Simple

Active

Passive

The manager Will Interview the applicant.

The applicant Will Be Interviewed.

Grant Will Write the letter of inquiry.

The letter of inquiry Will Be Written.

Present Continuous

Active

Passive

They Are Making a business plan.

The business plan Is Being Made.

Sara Wilson Is Writing a report.

The report Is Being Written.

Past Continuous

Active

Passive

The director Was Talking about the problem all the day last Friday.

The problem Was Being Talked about all day last Friday.

The secretary Was Typing the documents at 9 a. m. yesterday.

The documents Were Being Typed at 9 a. m. yesterday.

Present Perfect

Active

Passive

He Has just Received the cable.

The cable Has just Been Received.

Alice Has already Spent the money.

The money Has already Been Spent.

Past Perfect

Active

Passive

We Had Examined the results of the work before we went home.

The results of the work Had Been Examined before we went home.

They Had Made the contract.

The contract Had Been Made.

Упражнение 1. Поставьте данные предложения в форму пассивного залога:

Например: We have always bought books in this shop. По структуре данного предложения можно судить, что оно употреблено во времени Present Perfect, поэтому в пассивном залоге данная фраза будет выглядеть следующим образом – Books have always been bought in this shop.

1.  He inserted components into the device.

2.  They have just installed new equipment.

3.  We see the benefits of the production.

4.  The manager will introduce new ideas.

5.  We supply the company with spare parts.

6.  The company diversified their product range last year.

7.  He reviews programmes every year.

8.  Smith is discussing the question.

9.  Robert was translating the letter for 20 minutes.

10.  We have provided the shop with clothes for 10 years.

Упражнение 2. Раскройте скобки, употребив глагол в активном или пассивном залоге:

Пример: The company (establish) two years ago.

Так как объект, над которым совершается действие (the company) употребляется как подлежащее и находится на

1-м месте, в данном предложении следует употребить пассивный залог. Словосочетание “Two years ago” указывает на то, что действие произошло в Past Simple Tense – The company Was Established two years ago.

1.  The new goods (develop) last year.

2.  The company (sell) the goods to many countries.

3.  The profit (increase) two times for 3 years.

4.  The company (produce) only high-quality equipment.

5.  They (conduct) market research 2 years ago which showed that goods (admire) all over the world.

6.  The director of this company often (negotiate) with representatives of other companies and (discuss) many problems.

7.  All problems (solve) very quickly and efficiently.

8.  20 people (employ) last year. A very qualified manager on scientific research Mr. Pavlov is among them. He (investigate) a new model of computer now.

9.  It (produce) next year.

10.  It is evident that the new model (buy) by many companies.

Упражнение 3. Переведите Данные Предложения На Английский Язык, Употребив Времена Present Simple, Past Simple, Present Perfect, Present Continuous В Пассивном Залоге:

1.  Клиенты банка были проинформированы об увеличении процентных ставок.

2.  Работа была только что закончена.

3.  Статья будет опубликована в следующем выпуске газеты.

4.  Эта проблема сейчас изучается отделом научных разработок.

5.  Оборудование было модернизировано 3 года назад.

6.  Был ли принят проект Советом директоров?

7.  Несколько партий товаров было закуплено за 2 года.

8.  Этот план сейчас обсуждается на конференции.

9.  Сколько писем было получено за 3 месяца?

10.  Компания управляется Джоном Смитом.

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